- Commonest condition affecting male breast
- Due to enlargement of both ductal and stromal tissue
- It is benign and often reversible
- Usually presents as unilateral non-tender breast enlargement
- Most cases are idiopathic
- Physiological causes are due to relative oestrogen excess
- Physiological causes
- Pathological causes
- Primary Testicular Failure
- Klinefelter's Syndrome
- Bilateral Cryptorchidism
- Acquired Testicular Failure
- Secondary Testicular Failure
- Generalised hypopituitarism
- Isolated gonadotrophin deficiency
- Endocrine Tumours
- Non-Endocrine Tumours
- Bronchial carcinoma
- Hepatic Disease
- Oestrogens and oestrogen agonists - digoxin, spironolactone
- Hyperprolactinaemia - methyldopa, phenothiazines
- Testosterone target cell inhibitors - cimetidine, cyproterone Acetate
- Reassurance that it is a benign and self-limiting condition
- Treatment of any underlying cause
- If painful or embarrassing consider subcutaneous mastectomy
- Performed through circumareolar incision
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